Poverty Risk and Quality of Housing in the EU Regions with a Different Urbanisation Rate
Ivana Kraftová, Romana Provazníková, Tetiana Korovchenko
Abstract: The aim of this article is to compare selected parameters of /quality of life in the European Union countries by the degree of urbanization of living space and to verify the validity of three hypotheses aimed at quality of life evaluation in rural EU areas. The main data source is the Eurostat statistical data. Comparative analysis, variability, and concentration analysis using the method of adjusted index of geographical concentration have been applied during the processing. The analysis results show that the degree of risk of poverty "is split" in the EU between rural areas and cities. In this respect, European countries are divided into two roughly equal groups. The degree of concentration of people at risk of poverty in rural areas exceeds half the attainable interval. The extent of the actual geographic concentration of the population, and at the same time the disparities existing between European countries are both involved in it. Cost and quality of housing show the highest variability within European rural areas. The findings are in accordance with those experts who plead for a more effective tool targeting of EU cohesion policy in pursuit of its objectives in the field of poverty decreasement.
Keywords: Rural Region, Housing, Degree Of Urbanization, Risk Of Poverty, Overcrowding, Cost Overburden
JEL classification: I31, R21, R58
Regional Dimensions of Human Capital and Economic Growth: A Review of Empirical Research
Abstract: Intuition thus tells us that the relationship between human capital and economic growth at the regional level is more complex compared to the national level. The aim of this article is to survey the theoretical and empirical approaches of the relationship between human capital and economic growth at the regional level. We selected all articles in top scientific journals whose authors used the term human capital in their keywords. The total sample consists of 21 articles from the Journal of Economic Geography, 46 articles in Regional Studies, 35 articles in Papers in Regional Science and 4 articles in Economic Geography. The theoretical and empirical research at the regional level highlights the role of interregional migration, and the role of human capital in externalities in dense urban agglomerations. The greater complexity of the economic processes associated with the accumulation of human capital in the regions requires policies tailored to the needs of the regions.
Keywords: Human Capital, Regional Policy, Regional Economic Growth, Externalities, Migration
JEL classification: J24, R11, R23
Regional Resilience Redefinition: Postpandemic Challenge
Vladimír Žítek, Viktorie Klímová
Abstract: Regional resilience is understood as the ability of the socio-economic system to respond to rapid changes caused by various external factors. Such an external factor is the crisis caused by the Covid-19 pandemic in the spring of 2020, to which economies in many regions have not been able to respond adequately. Firstly, they did not anticipate such a situation and have paid insufficient attention to some matters. The paper aims to identify new challenges that should be reflected in the development strategies of regions striving for a higher level of resilience to unexpected pandemic crises. The analysis is performed on the example of the prepared Strategy of Regional Development of the South Moravian Region for 2021-27. We have created a proposal specific measures which should be involved in his type of strategic documents. In some generalizations, three topics proved to be critical. These are 1) the internet and cybersecurity, 2) health and social care, and 3) the availability and standardization of public and private services. The ability to move activities to the internet has met significant limits that need to be removed or overcome. The health and social care system will have to be re-evaluated in terms of the overall regional concept. The actual unavailability of basic services meant for many inhabitants a further deterioration of the already uncomfortable situation.
Keywords: Economic Development, Regional Resilience, Strategic Document, Pandemic Crisis, Covid-19, Security, Czech Region
JEL classification: R11, R58
Climate Assessment and Experience with Mobbing among Public Administration Staff (Example from Czech Tax Office)
Tomáš Čech, Pavlína Králová, Petra Dvořáková
Abstract: The paper focuses on the issue of relationships and climate in the workplace in public administration including the factors that have a negative effect on workplace climate and interpersonal relationships. From a theoretical perspective, the paper summarizes the knowledge of interpersonal relationships in the workplace, environmental effects on workplace climate including pathological and negative phenomena that influence workplace relationships, including especially conflicts, bullying, and sexual harassment. The objective of the research was to identify the assessment of workplace climate and relationships by the employees of the Tax Office for the Olomouc Region as a prerequisite for high-quality performance of public administration, including their experience with workplace aggression and bullying by their colleagues. The research was performed by means of a quantitative research strategy. The data were received from 305 employees by means of a questionnaire. The results suggest that about three quarters of employees assess their workplace climate in a positive way, which has a favourable effect on their work performance. The negative assessment by Tax Office employees may be related to their experience with mobbing and bossing reported by 10% of employees.
Keywords: Public Administration, Climate, Working Environment, Satisfaction, Conflicts, Aggression, Workplace Bullying, Tax Office
JEL classification: J28, H83
The Effect of Human Capital on the Output of Slovak Urban Regions
Abstract: Cities play a key role in the creation of the national product. Most of the population is located in cities, which leads to intensive economic activity. At present, two main topics are being discussed in the academic environment. One focuses on the importance of different size categories of cities in the economic system of countries. The second focuses on the importance of individual production factors in the creation of economic output of cities. This article deals with measuring the effects of production factors on the economic output of urban regions (also referred in this article as cities) in Slovakia. The analysis of 78 urban regions of Slovakia showed that the human capital factor has the largest effect on the production of their total output. Results from the subsequent analysis on the comparison of the impact of production factors between different size categories of urban regions largely confirmed the main result. However, the measured effects of individual production factors for different size categories of urban regions brought interesting differences.
Keywords: Slovakia, Human Capital, Urban Regions, Urban Size, Economic Output
JEL classification: R10, R12
Evaluation of Indicators of Public Administration in EU Countries by Use of Multidimensional Analysis
Martina Halásková, Renata Halásková
Abstract: The paper evaluates public administration from the viewpoint of selected indicators focused on the quality of government, corruption rate, e-public services and finance (government expenditures on public administration). The research covers the period 2012-2018 for the selected set of 28 EU countries and applies factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Results of the factor analysis showed that three economically developed countries, Denmark, Finland, and Sweden, attained the best results of public administration. By contrast, countries with the worst total results of public administration and a low economic level are Bulgaria, Romania, and Poland. Based on the evaluation of common indicators of public administration (performance of public administration and expenditures on public administration) using hierarchical cluster analysis, the EU countries were divided into four clusters by their internal similarity. The largest similarity in the performance of public administration is seen in two groups of countries, i.e. 16 countries. The largest similarity by government expenditures on public administration is seen in the countries in the second and fourth cluster, i.e. 17 countries. Following the analysed public administration indicators, the results also showed a link to traditional models of public administration in the majority of similar countries. This fact supports the specific features of administrative systems and the role related to management and evaluation of public administration.
Keywords: Public Administration, Factor Analysis, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, Good Governance, Quality Of Government, Indicators Of Public Administration
JEL classification: C38, H11, H83
Contracting and Outsourcing in Public Sector in the Czech Republic
Beáta Mikušová Meričková, Markéta Šumpíková, Nikoleta Jakuš Muthová, Juraj Nemec
Abstract: The aim of this study is to contribute to the recent discussion about contracting/outsourcing in public sector and its results. The study builds on the original research of contracting and outsourcing in the Czech public sector and assesses them from a comprehensive perspective. The following research questions are set: “Does contracting/outsourcing in public sector in the Czech Republic bring efficiency gains?” and “If not, why contracting/outsourcing services in the public sector in the Czech Republic do not bring efficiency gains?”. To answer the research questions two alternatives of services provision, namely internalisation and contracting, were evaluated. The three criteria, 1) expenditure on the provision of the service per citizen/employee, 2) the expenditure per performance indicator and 3) the quality of services evaluated on the basis of citizen/employee satisfaction as consumers of services were used in evaluation. To evaluate the efficiency of contracting services in the public sector was used the method of multi-criteria evaluation for selected samples - the method of the best values of criteria. It is not possible to come to the final conclusion about higher efficiency of internal versus external production. However, what can be clearly and un-doubtfully documented is the fact that depending on the concrete case the more efficient solutions differ. The core factor of the limited success of contracting and outsourcing - the quality of contract management represent critical problem in the Czech Republic.
Keywords: Czech Republic, Outsourcing, Contracting, Public Service, Contract Management
JEL classification: H41, H57
Cooperation between Municipalities and the Private Sector in the Field of Tourism (Case Study)
Janka Beresecka, Viera Papcunova
Abstract: The public sector very often encounters a lack of the financial resources needed to finance tourism projects. In this context, different models of public - private partnerships are proving to be appropriate solutions. The fact that the private sector is more efficient than the public sector in implementing large infrastructure projects that need to be implemented in the field of tourism can be mentioned in favor of using such a partnership, and moreover the use of public-private partnership models does not have an immediate impact on public budgets. The private sector is more efficient than the public sector in implementing big infrastructure projects, which need to be implemented in the field of tourism. In addition, the use of public-private partnership models does not have an immediate impact on public budgets. The aim of the paper is the analysis of a selected model of public - private partnership (PPP) in the field of tourism at the local level in the conditions of the Slovak Republic. Municipalities enter into PPP projects with tourism enterprises in order to create Regional Tourism Organizations (RTO). RTO is a legal entity established under Act No. 91/2010 Coll. on the promotion of tourism. It supports and creates conditions for the development of tourism in its territory and protects the interests of its members. The data for the analysis were data obtained from the Register of Regional Tourism Organizations in the Slovak Republic and the FINSTAT database. We used multiple regression and correlation analysis to test the established hypotheses. The results of the analysis show that in 2018 there were 953 RTO in Slovak Republic, in which 269 municipalities were involved. At the same time, a statistically significant dependence of selected economic benefits resulting from this PPP model was demonstrated.
Keywords: Tourism, Public Private Partnership (Ppp), Local Self - Government, Local Tourism Organization
JEL classification: H42, H72, Z32
Slovak Republic on the way to build Smart Cities based on KPIs with first Slovak Smart City Index
Andrej Kona, Dušan Guťan, Peter Horváth
Abstract: Although the topic of implementing smart technologies in cities and towns in Slovakia is not a new one, the process as such is only in its beginnings. The implementation of smart solutions provides opportunities to improve the quality of governing within local governments, more effective cooperation between individual departments, as well as possibilities to bring local governments closer to their inhabitants, including personal system of creation, evaluation and realization of smart solutions and innovations.
Keywords: Slovak Republic, Smart City, Governance, Urban Development
JEL classification: O18, O20, O38, O44
Prospective Impact of Business Simulation Gaming on the Public Sector Management
Pawel Tadeusz Kazibudzki
Abstract: Studying applications of mathematics, economics and behavioral sciences for various problems in business education seems to be prerequisite because its applied nature is obvious. So far, the public sector management and the decision making manner in this sector significantly differed from the private sector. However, public management has undergone significant changes nowadays, mainly due to more and more complex contemporary decisional problems it must face. Obviously, managerial cognitive capabilities can be taught, and have been taught in business education for years. The question arises if it is possible to adopt selected experiential techniques of pattern recognition, interconnected thinking and holistic learning, already successfully utilized during classical managerial training, to the betterment of the public sector management. The answer to this question constitutes the objective of this examination.
Keywords: Public Management, Business Simulation Gaming, Holistic Training, Pattern Recognition, Interconnected Thinking
JEL classification: D83, D91, H83, M53