SciPap, Volume 30 (2022)

https://doi.org/10.46585/sp30


Open Access Article SciPap-1599
Evolution and Structure of Public and Private Funding of Clusters in Europe: Results of Three Original Independent Questionnaire Surveys
by Peter Burger

Abstract: Data collected from three self-administered questionnaire surveys conducted in 2011, 2016, and 2022 are used in this scientific paper. The paper aims to analyse the revenue structure of European clusters and focus on identifying possible differences in their funding in 2011, 2016, and 2022. Over eleven years, the revenue structure of clusters has changed to some extent, and the evolution and extent of these changes are the subjects of this paper. At the same time, it is necessary to determine whether the relatively high level of dependence of European clusters on public resources continues to persist or decreases or increases over time. The results show that the differences in the funding of the clusters studied in the selected years are statistically significant. The share of public and private funds has varied particularly over the last five years, and the share of public resources in cluster budgets has been steadily increasing. When comparing the shares of different public and private funding types, significant differences were observed for most clusters during the period under review. One of the few resources that have had a constant representation in cluster budgets over the whole period is the EU Structural Funds and Community Programmes, whose share in the budgets of European clusters has fluctuated only slightly, according to our statistical survey. Similarly, there has been no change in the share of credit instruments, such as bank loans, in cluster budgets. This share is consistently meagre in all three questionnaire surveys, which means that European clusters hardly use this funding source.
Keywords: Financial Structure, Public/Private Resources, Financing Clusters, Cluster Policies, Clusters
JEL classification: O31, O38, R58

Open Access Article SciPap-1598
The Right Time for General Road Tax: Evidence from the Czech Republic
by Petr David

Abstract: Road transport is a source of emissions of which nitrogen oxides (NOX), particulate matter (PM2.5), and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are most damaging. The economic inefficiency caused by not including the emission externalities of vehicle operation in prices can be improved by using a vehicle use tax. In the Czech Republic, however, a large part of the vehicle fleet is exempt from this tax, which is thus not general. This part of the fleet thus escapes taxation, for which there is no economic justification. To identify the actual ratio of emissions indicators of operating fleet segments in relation to vehicle use tax we use unique dataset composed of national emissions inventories data of the Copert program, road vehicle register data and vehicle testing stations data. It is also possible to quantify emissions production and determine the external costs of NOX, PM2.5, and CO2 generated by road transport segments in the Czech Republic. It was found that half of the production of the emissions in road transport in the Czech Republic representing almost 60% of the environmental costs were not covered by the existing tax due to the exclusion of part of the vehicle fleet from this taxation, especially private passenger vehicles.
Keywords: Road Transport, Mileage, Emission, Vehicle Use Tax, Environment
JEL classification: H21, H23

Open Access Article SciPap-1580
How Social Advertising Affects the Buying Behaviour of Malaysian Consumers? Testing the Moderating Effects of Gender and Education
by Fazal Ur Rehman, Viktor Prokop, Bestoon Othman, Farwida Javed, Sadia Ijaz

Abstract: This study examines the influence of social advertising on the buying behaviour of Malaysian consumers along with the moderating role of gender and education. We use our own Primary data that were collected through questionnaire-based survey from the shoppers at various shopping malls of fashion clothing brands at Kuala Lumpur and State Johor in Malaysia. The collected data were analyzed by using step wise regression and correlation statistics to find results. The findings revealed that social advertising, informativeness, entertainment, credibility, ease of use, contents, and gender have positive effects on the buying behaviour of Malaysian consumers toward the fashion clothing brands. By contrast, we find negative effects of privacy and education. Next, we show that gender has moderating effects in the defined context. The main contribution of this study is the assessment of the effects of some unique and influential factors of social advertising on the buying behaviour among Malaysian consumers towards the fashion clothing brands. In addition, this study has also assessed the moderating effects of gender and education to extend the body of knowledge in that area. Finally, we present practical implications for managers.
Keywords: Fashion Brands, Social Advertising, Consumer Behaviour, Education, Gender
JEL classification: H, P35

Open Access Article SciPap-1568
The Influence of COVID-19 Pandemic on Digital Transformation Process and Strategic Management in a SMEs in the Czech Republic
by Tomáš Červinka, Petr Novák

Abstract: In this qualitative study, we provide insight to the influence of COVID-19 pandemic on the digital transformation process and strategic management in SMEs in the Czech Republic. Digital transformation is perceived as a driver of growth and competitiveness, defined by new technologies and approaches, and strongly connected with strategic management and strategic approach. Drawing on SME employees experience with recent pandemic situation, we analysed and addressed the factors that influence digital transformation process and strategic management to reveal and describe, what drives or slows the process. Our findings have been founded on several case studies carried out in SME organizations via series of interviews that involved employees of various level and specialization. Results reveal that influence of pandemic on digital transformation process and strategic management may vary according to individual experience, which opens the possibility for contextualization and further research using quantitative methods. The results indicate that the influence of covid19 pandemic on strategic management and digital transformation process generated both positive and negative experience. It was perceived as an accelerator of change, speeding up rigid or long-postponed processes and implementations, but also carrying negative effects as employee attrition, loss of morale and motivation and resignation. This research contributes to prior literature on digital transformation and strategic management by investigating the influence of unprecedent events of multinational impact on SME digital transformation process.
Keywords: Strategic Adaptability, Qualitative Interpretative Research, Competitive Advantage., Change Management, Covid-19, Strategic Management, Digital Transformation
JEL classification: M10, M54, O31

Open Access Article SciPap-1565
Sensitivity of Economic Branches to Changes in Production Volumes
by Dagmar Čámská, Jiří Klečka, Hana Scholleová

Abstract: The paper aim is to verify industry sensitivity to changes in production volumes (sales). Sensitivity confirmation is not based on the data describing economic downturn but on permanent internal industry factors. Internal factors take into consideration cost dependency on changes in output quantity produced. Ex ante analysis would discover why some industries would be more vulnerable than the others when significant economic disruption occurs. It has a serious impact on industry performance and business competitiveness position. The examined sensitivity will be expressed by the indicator degree of operating leverage (DOL). The verified assumption should classify neutral industries as sectors with low sensitivity and cyclical branches as industries with high sensitivity. The research is based on the data of more than 1,000 enterprises belonging to four industry sectors. Cyclical industries are represented by CZ-NACE 29 Manufacture of motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers and CZ-NACE H Transportation and Storage. Neutral sectors are symbolized by CZ-NACE 10 Manufacture of food products, CZ-NACE 20 Manufacture of chemicals and chemical products. Research conclusions are not demonstrable because initial assumptions were not confirmed and significant differences between cyclical and neutral industry branches were not unexpectedly detected using DOL. It demonstrates that examined issue is more complex and the monitored economic environment does not stay stable even during a period of macroeconomic stability.
Keywords: Cz-Nace, Impact On Profitability, Changes In Sales, Degree Of Operational Leverage, Czech Republic
JEL classification: D24, M21, P42

Open Access Article SciPap-1564
Transparency in Local Government in Vietnam
by Nguyen Trong Binh, Nguyen Quang Giai

Abstract: While it is only one of the features of good local governance, the transparency of local government promotes citizen participation, enhances accountability, enforces the rule of law, social justice association and control corruption. Therefore, institutional reform to enhance the transparency of local government is one of the important issues that Vietnam has attached great importance to in recent years. Based on a theoretical framework and data from the Provincial Public Administration and Governance Performance Index (PAPI), this paper analyzes the transparency of local government in Vietnam from 2011 to present. Research results show that although the transparency of local government in Vietnam has improved, it still does not meet the requirements. Although the construction and improvement of legal institutions to improve the transparency of local governments has been highly valued, the effectiveness of the implementation of legal institutions in this area is still not high. Local government transparency is tied to citizen participation and government accountability, but not to other aspects, such as public administrative procedures, quality of public services and control corruption.
Keywords: Vietnam., Papi, Open Government, Good Governance, Local Government, Transparency
JEL classification: H76

Open Access Article SciPap-1560
Effect of Diversity Management on Organizational Trust, Employee Innovative Behavior, and Employee Engagement: Evidence from Indonesia
by Anastasia Mariana Derita Batmomolin, Muhammad Sadikin, Jimmy Hadi, Andreas Gunawan P, Stefanus MS Ms Sadana

Abstract: Internationalization and economic globalization cause diversity in organizations to be higher, thus requiring a diversity management approach. This quantitative study aims to analyze the effect of diversity management on organizational trust, employee innovative behavior, and employee engagement. Data were collected using a questionnaire involving 115 employees of a large private bank in Jakarta, Indonesia. Analysis of research data using structural equation modeling (SEM) with SmartPLS software. The results showed that diversity management has a positive effect on organizational trust, employee innovative behavior, and employee engagement. Organizational trust has a positive effect on employee innovative behavior and employee engagement. Organizational trust mediates the effect of diversity management on employee innovative behavior and employee engagement. Diversity management is very important for organizations today because it can promote organizational trust, create employee innovative behavior and strengthen employee engagement, so every organization needs to establish policies regarding diversity management practices and consistently make it happen.
Keywords: Employee Engagement, Indonesia, Diversity Management, Organizational Trust, Employee Innovative Behavior
JEL classification: M14, O15

Open Access Article SciPap-1557
Competitiveness of Human and Business in Terms of Stock Market Analysis
by Ihor Hurnyak, Pedro Pardal, Jakub Horák, Veronika Machová

Abstract: The competitiveness of modern human and business are inextricably linked with the work of the stock market. In some cases, easily could be detected a correlation between trends or tendencies of the stock market and the directions of transformation of human behavior. What should people and businesses be like to maintain this competitiveness at the proper level? According to the authors, it is the developed stock market as instrument of modern society that provides the answer to this question. Through the analysis of stock markets tendencies, this research aims to find evidence that confirm the new characteristics of human life in the fields of education, healthcare, communication, commerce, and interaction with virtuality. Most researchers focus separately on the study of human behavior and the functioning of the stock market. We analyze the relation between both dimensions, assuming that the stock market can be considered, for developed countries, through the small investors voting as public preferences and goals reflection. Evidence from statistical analysis of the stock market confirmed the following characteristics of modern human: faster dissemination of knowledge, e-commerce acceleration, influencing interpenetration of the Internet communications, in depth virtualization, and accelerated circulation of information flows. Operating within such flows of change allows people and businesses to remain competitive at the appropriate level.
Keywords: Remote Education, Virtualization, Pandemic Influence, New Human, Stock Market, Competitiveness
JEL classification: M21, D02, D91, I21

Open Access Article SciPap-1554
EU Cohesion Policy in the Czech Republic and Poland: Comparison of Intervention Areas Among Regions
by Lenka Smékalová, Filip Kučera

Abstract: The cohesion policy of the European Union represents a significant part of its budget and delivers interventions across all regions of the EU. There is little consensus on its efficiency, and its links to fostering convergence on the regional level are uncertain. Nevertheless, regions were shown to benefit from policy interventions promoting their growth and development. The main objective of the policy is to reduce regional disparities that exist among lagging and other, more developed regions. Therefore, this paper focuses on the deliverance of the cohesion policy in Central and Eastern European countries, Poland and the Czech Republic. It explores the support of thematic interventions across its regions in the 2014-2020 period. Findings point out different thematic support of Polish regions according to their relative advancement. Lagging regions of Poland received more substantial support related to promoting the endogenous potential for development and increase in quality of human capital. In contrast, the Czech regions were treated comparably regardless of their development stages. This points to different approaches to implementing the cohesion policy in these countries
Keywords: Lagging Regions, European Structural And Investment Funds, Poland, Cohesion Policy, Regional Development, Czech Republic
JEL classification: J18, R11, R58

Open Access Article SciPap-1550
Innovation Ecosystem in Selected Regions of the Czech Republic and Poland
by Jindra Peterková, Katarzyna Czerná, Jarmila Zimmermannová

Abstract: There are no official statistics in the Czech Republic and Poland mapping the number of start-ups, spin-offs, and organizations supporting innovative businesses. The paper defines the specifics of innovation ecosystem in selected regions of the CZ Moravian-Silesian Region and PL Silesian Voivodeship. Similar economic and socio-cultural developments characterize chosen regions. Hypotheses are defined whose statistical significance is evaluated through the Pearson Chi-Square test. The results are estimated separately for the Moravian-Silesian Region and Silesian Voivodeship and focus on identifying the ownership of organizations, the nature of services provided, and the average annual occupancy of clients in the business phase financing business support programs and possible cooperation between organization. Using the hierarchical cluster analysis with the Ward method, the authors described four clusters. Based on the results obtained from the solution, a general model of the innovation ecosystem supporting innovative entrepreneurship is defined.
Keywords: Science And Technology Park, Innovation Ecosystem, Coworking, Startup, Business Incubator
JEL classification: M1, M2, O3

Open Access Article SciPap-1528
Impact of Company-Specific Determinants on Corporate Cash Holdings: Evidence From South-East European Countries
by Aleksandar Naumoski, Vesna Bucevska

Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of intercompany determinants on corporate cash holdings in South East Europe. We researched a large sample of companies listed on the stock exchanges. We found that SEE companies’ cash holdings on average is 6.94% of the total assets, which is lower than in developed countries. Intercompany determinants have a significant impact on the company’s cash holdings. Our results suggest that cash holdings are positively affected by the size of the firms, cash flow, cash flow uncertainty, debt maturity, and growth opportunities. Cash holdings are negatively affected by the net working capital, financial leverage, and capital expenditures. SEE companies operate in underdeveloped financial markets with limited access to finances, and their cash holding decisions are mostly determined by the transaction motive. Our findings indicate that companies in SEE do not pursue a cash optimization policy. They largely follow the pecking order pattern and the cash holding of the firm is mostly determined by means of the relationship between the capital investments and internally generated funds.
Keywords: Transaction Motive, Pecking Order, Trade-Off Theory, South East Europe, Cash Holdings
JEL classification: G3, G32

Open Access Article SciPap-1509
Does Financial Technology Matter? Evidence from the Indonesia Healthcare Industry During the Covid-19 Pandemic
by Liliana Inggrit Wijaya, Zunairoh Zunairoh, Andri Rianawati, Vincentius Riandaru Prasetyo, Indro Harianto

Abstract: The Covid-19 pandemic has created various new restrictions, including restrictions on direct interaction in the administrative process of hospitals. In fact, the administrative process in Indonesian hospitals is still complex, not well organized, and has not used technology properly. This study aims to analyze the effect of financial technology (fintech) and financial literacy on the efficiency of the Indonesian healthcare industry during the Covid-19 pandemic era. This study uses a quantitative method with an online survey for data collecting. The purposive sampling was applied to get 225 respondents. The dependent variable is financial technology usage, which is measured through three perceptions of fintech users: perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and internet usage of all healthcare service users in the healthcare industry in Indonesia. The moderating variable adopted in this study is financial literacy, which is a combination of the understanding (knowledge), skills, attitude, and ability to make sound judgement and decision (behavior) on personal financial matters resulting in individual financial well-being. This study uses the SEM (Structural Equation Modeling) method to analyze the efficiency of the healthcare industry. The study results show that perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness have an effect on fintech; fintech has a positive effect on efficiency, where financial literacy also strengthens the effect of fintech on efficiency in the Indonesia healthcare industry during the Covid-19 pandemic. The results of this study are expected to make a significant contribution to the development of the healthcare industry that currently becomes a top priority, given the urgency in handling public health, including Covid-19 patients. Additionally, this research provides a theoretical contribution by increasing fintech literacy in the healthcare industry in increasing efficiency during the Covid-19 pandemic. While practical contribution is about giving new insight to consider the technology in improving management process in healthcare industry.
Keywords: Financial Literacy, Financial Technology, Healthcare Industry, Covid-19, Efficiency
JEL classification: F64, F65, G, G01, G38

Open Access Article SciPap-1491
Growth vs. Value: The Effect of the Covid-19 Pandemic
by Barbara Rasiova

Abstract: Growth and value are popular terms in the lexicon of finance. For many years, scholars and investment professionals have claimed that value strategies outperform the growth ones, even in major market declines. However, since the early 2010’s, this seems to no longer hold, as growth strategies consistently generate superior returns. With declaration of Covid-19 as a pandemic, stock markets across the world were confronted with immense uncertainty. Taking the recent trend reversal in outperformance into consideration, such economic climate sparks interest in the differences in the response of growth and value strategies. Using log returns data for value and growth portfolios during the 2010-2021 period, this study provides empirical evidence that value portfolios show greater sensitivity to the Covid-19 pandemic. While findings show that the pandemic had a profound impact on the performance and riskiness of both portfolios, they clearly indicate higher volatility, frequency of extreme losses and average loss in the value portfolio, which further extends the growth outperformance to market downturns.
Keywords: Loss, Growth, Return, Pandemic, Value, Risk
JEL classification: G1, G11, G14

Open Access Article SciPap-1490
Size, Value Effects and the Explanatory Power of Pricing Models: Evidence From BSE Listed Indian Industries
by Bhumiswor Sharma, Srikanth P, Suresha B

Abstract: The firm size and value anomalies are the global-level counterpart for explaining the cross-sectional variations of equity returns. The purpose of this paper is to examine the size, value effects and the explanatory power of three well-known pricing models – CAPM, three-and five-factor across and within 15 Indian industries. The study considers all firms listed on the Indian largest stock exchange, BSE (Bombay stock exchange), between 1999-2021 by developing portfolios using firm size/value, size/investment and size/profitability risk characteristics. The study employs both univariate and multivariate methods, including time-series, GRS statistic, and cross-sectional models within and across industries' portfolios. Results indicated that size and value effects exist in almost all industries, presenting that size and value anomalies are the most prominent determinants for industry-level equity returns. In addition, the profitability and investment effects were also investigated; however, the results are mixed by industry to industry. In the case of the explanatory power of pricing models, the five-factor performs much better within and across industry portfolios than other pricing models; however, the models' effectiveness varies by industry. We also reported that investors who seek to allocate funds within and across the industries tend to be expected reasonably stable returns and conceivably predictable; findings of this study contribute to the existing literature on assets pricing and portfolio management to the emerging markets.
Keywords: India, Time-Series Models, Cross-Sectional Models, Stock Market, Portfolio Management, Asset Pricing
JEL classification: C21, C22, G11, G12

Open Access Article SciPap-1478
User Churn Model in E-Commerce Retail
by Martin Fridrich, Petr Dostál

Abstract: In e-commerce retail, maintaining a healthy customer base through retention management is necessary. Churn prediction efforts support the goal of retention and rely upon dependent and independent characteristics. Unfortunately, there does not appear to be a consensus regarding a user churn model. Thus, our goal is to propose a model based on a traditional and new set of attributes and explore its properties using auxiliary evaluation. Individual variable importance is assessed using the best performing modeling pipelines and a permutation procedure. In addition, we estimate the effects on the performance and quality of a feature set using an original technique based on importance ranking and information retrieval. The performance benchmark reveals satisfying pipelines utilizing LR, SVM-RBF, and GBM learners. The solutions rely profoundly on traditional recency and frequency aspects of user behavior. Interestingly, SVM-RBF and GBM exploit the potential of more subtle elements describing user preferences or date-time behavioural patterns. The collected evidence may also aid business decision-making associated with churn prediction efforts, e.g., retention campaign design.
Keywords: Feature Set Importance, Feature Importance, Electronic Commerce, Churn Prediction, User Model, Customer Relationship Management, Machine Learning, Retail
JEL classification: C60, M31

Open Access Article SciPap-1460
Effects of Subsidy on Publication Outputs. Can Small Research Grants Lead To Higher Quality Scientific Articles?
by Valeria Nemethova, Miroslav Šipikal, Alexandra Salamonova

Abstract: Universities play a crucial role in new knowledge production that is considered as key driver of economic growth. Hence, the support of university research is essential, usually provided by the public sector. This article presents an evaluation of small grants of universities through examining research projects in the field of economics implemented in years 2008-2018 in Slovakia. A negative binomial regression analysis was used to determine the effects of small grants on publication outputs of supported researchers. Impact of subsidy on the number of all publications and separately on the quantity of higher quality scientific articles was distinguished. Results show a slight positive impact of the volume of funds on overall publication outputs, even though other factors seem to be more important as the size of the research team, the proximity to the capital city as well as the quality of faculty at which the project is implemented. Conversely, the impact of the volume of funds on higher quality publication appears to be not significant. In this case, more substantial are factors indicating the previous reputation of the research team, ranking of faculty and general research environment. Our findings indicate that researchers with great publication activity are willing to report high quality scientific articles in forthcoming periods regardless the support. Ergo, less active scientists are not benefiting from small grant in terms of their publication improvement.
Keywords: Universities, Project Funding, Small Grants, Economic Research, Negative Binomial Regression
JEL classification: G28, H52, I28

Open Access Review SciPap-1454
A Review of Platform Business Models
by Markéta Mlčúchová

Abstract: The paper focuses on platform business models as ubiquitous features of the digital economy whose economic importance is continuously increasing. Considering their varying definitions and diverse typology, the aim of this paper is to coin a unified definition and identify the main attributes of platform business models. In line with fulfilling the aim of the paper, the following research question is addressed: ‘What are the main attributes of platform business models?’. Based on a vast literature review, the paper coins a unified definition and devises a novel typology, distinguishing four main types of platform business models: transaction, innovation, integrated and investment. Furthermore, the importance of both digital data and network effects as the main identified attributes is highlighted. Additionally, the paper devises a novel typology of network effects, amplifying users’ value-creating activities and interconnected relationships. The novel typology of network effects is distinguishing direct, indirect (cross-sided, cross-network or two-sided), data, positive and negative network effects.
Keywords: Digital Economy, Business Model, Platform Business Model, Digital Data, Network Effects
JEL classification: L86, F23

Open Access Article SciPap-1405
Allocation of Public Funds from The State Budget to The National Sports Associations in Slovakia
by Jozef Kučera, Juraj Nemec

Abstract: National sports associations in Slovakia are the umbrella organizations for individual types of sports and help achieve the objectives of public policies in the field of sports. In the Slovak Republic, these sports organizations are predominantly funded from public funds. This paper focuses on the system of financing of national sports associations in the Slovak Republic according to the rules laid down by the new law on sports in 2016. The aim of the paper is to identify the main changes in the methodology of financing national sports associations in the Slovak Republic and redistribution of public resources. Based on an interview with a selected group of experts in the field of sports in Slovakia and analysis of empirical data, changes in the methodology of financing national sports associations were identified. In conclusion, it could be said that the new system of financing national sports associations following the adoption of the new law on sport is not only not fairer from the point of view of the redistribution of public funds, but also poses fundamental implementation problems.
Keywords: National Sports Associations, Recognized Sports, Public Funds, Contributions To Recognized Sports, Share Of Recognized Sports, Financial Brake System
JEL classification: H41, H51, I18

Open Access Article SciPap-1397
Unlocking Potential Social Value Creation to Improve Digital Startup Performance: The Role of Government Institutional Support and Social Entrepreneurship
by Septian Wahyudi, I Made Sukresna, Rintar Agus Simatupang

Abstract: The main goal of social entrepreneurship is to achieve organisational performance while facing various challenges, including a lack of financial support and difficulty harmonizing commercial activities with social missions. The authors suggest that government institutional support can revitalize social entrepreneurship through financial support and various policy measures. In addition, social entrepreneurship can increase the creation of social change to meet their social needs, known as social value creation. Hence, this study proposes institutional factors and social entrepreneurship as predictors of social value creation. Social value creation mediates the relationship between social entrepreneurship and organisational performance grounded on innovation theory. The study applies structural equation modeling with AMOS-24 software to test the research hypotheses with 249 Indonesian digital startups with a social impact as a sample. The results find that government institutional support can increase social entrepreneurship and enhance social value creation. As hypothesized, social value creation is a mediator in improving organisational performance. This study contributes to a comprehensive understanding of government institutional support, social entrepreneurship, social value creation, and organisational performance.
Keywords: Social Entrepreneurship, Government Support, Social Value Creation, Innovation Theory, Digital Startup
JEL classification: L26, M, M13

Open Access Article SciPap-1389
Smart Cities – Overview of Citizen Participation across Application Domains
by Oliver Rafaj, Stefan Rehak, Tomáš Černěnko

Abstract: Smart Cities is a widely discussed topic in the social sciences. At first, awareness of Smart Cities in society was based mainly on the fact that these are cities that use modern information and communication technology (ICT) to ensure the provision of public services to their citizens. However, with the development of technology and the growing openness, the role of citizens in the city administration is changing. Thanks to the day-to-day use of ICT to communicate with the city administration, citizens are gradually becoming from ordinary consumers of public services to their co-designers and co-authors. The existing body of literature has so far focused mainly on describing examples of forms of involving citizens in the design and creation of specific public services in selected application domains. However, a comprehensive overview and comparison of citizen participation between different application domains is lacking in the literature. Therefore, the aim of this article is to provide an overview of the development of citizen participation in the concept of Smart Cities and its various application domains. Our research has shown that the topic of Smart Cities is a widely discussed topic in society, especially over the last 10 years. At the same time, our findings confirmed that there exist differences between application domains in citizen participation. From an analysis of published scientific articles on Smart Cities, we found that most of the articles on Smart Cities deal with the fields of natural resources and energy, transportation and mobility, and living. However, from the perspective of the participation of citizens, there are other application domains at the top of the number of publications.
Keywords: Citizen Participation, Smart Cities, Application Domains, Smart City Governance
JEL classification: R58, H41