The Financial Burden of Common Respiratory Illnesses of Children From Different Perspectives: The Cost-Of-Illness Study in the Czech Republic
Dominika Tóthová, Jana Soukopová
Abstract: Acute nasopharyngitis and acute bronchitis are common childhood diseases. The problem is that the cost of these different subjects in the economy is unknown. This article aims at estimating the cost of acute nasopharyngitis and acute bronchitis per incidence from the perspective of society, employers, state budget, system of healthcare and households in children aged 4–15 years in the Czech Republic. We used an incidence-based Cost-Of-Illness study based on the typical course of disease. We estimated the mean societal cost per episode of acute nasopharyngitis at EUR 541 (children 4–10 years) and EUR 536 (children 11–15 years) and 1 episode of acute bronchitis at EUR 848 (children 4–10 years) and EUR 845 (children 11–15 years). Overall, the state budget and employers bear the highest costs in the Czech Republic. We estimated the share of cost from the perspective of the state budget at 46.9–49% and from the perspective of employers at 58.2–60%. The majority of these costs arise in indirect costs in connection with parents’ absenteeism from work.
Keywords: Cost-Of-Illness, Acute Nasopharyngitis, Acute Bronchitis, Children, Perspective
JEL classification: H51, I13, I14, I18, I31
Determinants of Civil Service in EU Countries: Analysis using Multivariate Methods
Martina Halásková, Václav Friedrich, Ivana Čermáková
Abstract: Systems of civil service reflect specific needs, traditions and institutional fundamentals of every state. The paper provides an outline of the European context of civil service, characteristics of basic features of civil service in EU countries, and evaluation of selected determinants of civil service from the perspectives of human resources, finances, and performance. Factor analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and analysis of variance are applied in the research to evaluate the period 2012-2019 in the 27 EU countries. Factor analysis was used to assign the selected determinants of civil service in the EU countries with the three factors created (performance of civil service, financial dimension of civil service, employees of civil service). The evaluation of the factors of the civil service in the EU countries using hierarchical cluster analysis has resulted in five clusters of countries with similar characteristic features of civil service. The strongest similarity is seen in the clusters of the EU countries in performance of civil service and employees of civil service. The results of the EU countries also indicate similarity of average values of civil service factors. Analysis of civil service determinants has proved that in the majority of countries placed in the same cluster according to the similarity of civil service, a relation exists in terms of the same tradition of the civil service but also in terms of the geographical viewpoint. Despite differences, similar tendencies can be observed related to increased flexibility, performance and modernisation of civil service systems.
Keywords: EU Countries, Factor Analysis, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, Civil Service, Civil Servants, Determinants Of Civil Service
JEL classification: H83, C38, H10
Legal Responsibility for Corrupt Practices with an Impact on the Enforcement of Political Accountability: Case Study of Slovakia
Michal Lendvorský, Daniela Mališová, Bernard Pekár, Beáta Mikušová Meričková, Jana Štrangfeldová
Abstract: Tackling corruption regularly appears on the agendas of almost all governments. Anti-corruption public policies aim to prevent corrupt behaviour both at the highest levels of government and in everyday social life. On the one hand, corruption seriously undermines the democratic principles of the rule of law; on the other hand, the enforceability of political accountability linked to the rule of law determines the level of corruption. The aim of the study is to identify the enforceability of legal responsibility for corrupt acts against public officials in the Slovak political arena during the electoral periods from 1994 to 2020. This objective is fulfilled by answering research questions focused on the incidence rate and definition of corrupt conduct in the Slovak Republic environment. The main method of the paper is a collective case study conducted on 219 cases. The results showed that the societal pressure for accountability of political accountability is increasing over time. Hence, the importance of anti-corruption public policy is growing, but its effectiveness remains questionable. The results of the research point to low levels of accountability, especially under left-wing governments.
Keywords: Corruption, Rule Of Law, Political Accountability, Anti-Corruption Policy
JEL classification: D73, K49
Use of eHealth Tools by Primary Care Physicians According to the Provided Healthcare in the Czech Republic
Abstract: One of the main goals at the European level is that healthcare systems must be accessible but at the same time cost-effective and sustainable in the long term. The implementation of eHealth is one way to contribute to this goal. The presented paper is focused on the evaluation of the usage of eHealth tools in medical clinics in the Czech Republic. eHealth development is an important tool of health policy in the Czech Republic and an important goal of Czech health care reforms, as it has the potential to improve the availability of healthcare and to increase its quality and effectiveness. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the use of eHealth tools adopted in primary care medical clinics according to the type of provided healthcare and according to the NUTS 3 regions in the Czech Republic. The evaluation is performed by application of the multicriteria decision-making methods. The research results indicate that the usage of eHealth tools in medical clinics vary significantly depending on the type of healthcare provided and also in individual NUTS 3 regions. It was found that the eHealth tools are used to the greatest extent in gynecological clinics and to a lesser extent in dentist clinics. Based on the comparison of the eHealth Index, the ranking of the regions in the Czech Republic was determined from the most successful to the least successful in terms of the use of eHealth tools in medical clinics.
Keywords: Czech Republic, Topsis, ICT, Ehealth, Mcdm Methods, Outpatient Healthcare
JEL classification: H75, I11, I18
Inward FDI and Economic Growth Nexus: A Case of Emerging Brazil from Latin America.
Farrukh Nawaz Kayani, Omar Mahmoud Al-Ammary, Misbah Sadiq
Abstract: Capital stock is possessing pivotal importance in stimulating the economic growth and development of any country. Inward FDI is considered as one of the important catalysts of economic development particularly for the resource and capital poor countries. In this article we have examined the relationship between inward FDI and economic growth in case of one of the emerging economies of Latin America i.e., Brazil. We took annual time series data for the dependent and independent variables like inward FDI, per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP), employment, capital formation, and exports for the period ranging from 1996 to 2019. Initially, we applied Pearson Correlation test for examining the issue of Multicollinearity. Then we ran Ordinary Least Square Regression and Random Effect Regression Analysis for gauging the nature of relationship between the variables as well as for testing the robustness of the results. We found that FDI has a positive and significant relationship with GDP and the exports. Whereas, FDI has insignificant relationship with the employment and capital formation. The article holds an important policy implication for the other developing countries of Latin America; they need to attract good amount of inward FDI to achieve the robust economic growth and development.
Keywords: Economic Growth, Employment, Brazil, Inward Fdi, Exports, Capital Formation, Latin America.
JEL classification: F21, F23, F43
Change Leadership at Local Self-Government in the Context of COVID-19: The Case Study of Lithuanian Municipal Administration
Vineta Račaitė-Samušienė, Diana Šaparnienė, Vita Jukneviciene
Abstract: Contemporary challenges require public sector institutions to adapt the changing environment and to ensure an appropriate internal management processes, including the leadership. Leaders are expected to inspire and create a vision, and advocate for that vision throughout the periods of growth, disruption or uncertainty. In recent years of pandemic the importance of change leadership increases in local self-government. The aim of this article is to examine the change leadership in Lithuanian municipal administration in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and on the basis of research results to form the assumptions of strengthening of change leadership in local self-government organisations. Analysis of theoretical aspects revealed main features of change leadership and its connection with transformational leadership in the context of public administration institutions focusing on the COVID-19 pandemic. The scientific methods such as document analysis and qualitative semi-structured interview have been used for the empirical research, based on the case study of selected Lithuanian municipal administration as the field of research. The research results revealed that during the period of changes assumed by the COVID-19 pandemic the managers of Lithuanian municipal administration act like leaders of change, resolving problems in teams and flexibly reacting to current issues.
Keywords: Public Sector, Local Self-Government, Covid-19, Lithuania, Change Leadership, Transformational Leadership, Municipal Administration
JEL classification: J45, O15, H12
Currency Competition: Currency Internationalization Potential Assessment Using Fuzzy Logic Approach
Vojtěch Sadil, Jana Přílučíková, Juraj Sipko
Abstract: Frequently noted inadequately explored connections between currency internationalization and expected change in the polarity of the international monetary system in the international relations literature are commanding the renewed attention and vigorous debate for more international monetary arena studies. This paper examines the potential of competing currencies to internationalize. For the first time, we utilize a fuzzy logic-based multi-dimensional model assessing separately the internationalization potential of 14 competing currencies in 2020 to predict whether the international monetary system is likely to remain unipolar and US dollar based, or evolve into a multipolar international monetary arena. The results suggest comparable levels of currency internationalization exist, indicating that the international monetary system may be further shaped into a more competitive (multipolar) monetary environment, controlling for economic, convertibility, monetary stability, political and legal factors. Finally, our results have policy implications since determined currency internationalization potential levels may facilitate economists and policymakers better understanding which currencies may play an increasingly large role in becoming a dominant international currency in the international monetary system.
Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, Competition, International Monetary System, Currency Internationalization, Multi-Polarity
JEL classification: F31, F33, F63
Aligning Enterprise Performance Goals and Pay Motivational Design in Forest Enterprises, Transcarpathia, Ukraine
Svitlana Slava, Vladyslava Puhinska
Abstract: This paper suggests a way of aligning two economically related, but sometimes antinomic in interests goals: enterprise performance indicators and respectively connected pay system using goal-based motivational design. Responding to this, the aspects of enterprise performance/pay relations are analysed through the links specifically between net revenue and labour productivity, from one side, and structural components of remuneration, from the other. The sample includes nineteen public forest enterprises, in Transcarpathia, Western Ukraine, and represents the total number of the forest enterprises with similar activities. The research results contribute to the enterprise performance-pay theorisation by adding (1) a generalised regional relational model aiming at measuring functionality of existing connections between enterprise performance and structural components of total wage remunerations, and (2) developed an adaptive regional relational model of enterprise-goals-linked pay with differentiated levels of defined links.
Keywords: Ukraine, Enterprise-Performance-Related Pay, Remuneration Structure, Transcarpathia
JEL classification: J31, Q23, R19
Evaluation of Selected Indicators of Health Care in the Context of Health care Systems: Case of 27 European Union Countries
Renata Halásková, Pavel Bednář
Abstract: Healthcare in European countries is provided through different systems run at national levels. The aim of the article is to evaluate selected health care indicators in EU countries, while accentuating similarities and differences between the EU countries in the context of health care systems. Applying the method of multivariate analysis, the selected health care indicators (from the areas of financing, service provision, health status) are evaluated on a set of 27 EU countries in the period 2013-2018. Factor analysis was applied to generate two factors (i.e. expenditures and satisfaction with health care, health status and bed availability in hospitals) from the original indicators of health care. As a next step, hierarchical cluster analysis was utilised to divide the EU countries into six clusters by similarity of the health care factors. The results of the factor analysis demonstrate marked differences between the countries regarding the evaluated health care factors. A higher (lower) level of socio-economic development is the aspect of better (worse) results of health care in the majority of the countries evaluated. However, according to the evaluated health care factors, clusters of similar countries used different systems of health care by type and source of financing. The findings thus demonstrate both similar and different approaches towards the provision of health care and funding health care systems in EU countries.
Keywords: Health Care, Health Care Financing, Health Care Indicators, Health Care Systems, Methods Of Multivariate Analysis
JEL classification: H51, I15, I18, C38
A Bibliometric Analysis of Artificial Intelligence Technique in Financial Market
Abstract: This article aims to explore the main areas of research, development trends and provide a systematic overview of publications in the field of artificial intelligence in financial markets. The bibliometric tool VOSViewer is used in this paper. We analyzed 353 articles and contributions obtained from the database of Web of Science, and summarized our findings as follows: artificial intelligence is becoming increasingly widespread in the field of finance and interdisciplinary interconnection; artificial intelligence tools such as neural networks and fuzzy logic are most often used to predict the development of financial time series, or to create decision models; the most important cited authors in this field are Markowitz and Lebaron. Expert System with Application is the cradle of a significant part of fundamental research in the field of artificial intelligence. By using effective bibliometric methods, we provide comprehensive analysis and in-depth insight into the subject area of research, which allows individuals and especially new beginners interested in this area to obtain valuable information and possible direction of future research. The study is recommended to focus on hybrid models prediction of individual sectors of the financial markets, which are present in the current research on the rise.
Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, Ann, Neural Network, Artificial Intelligence, Ai, Bibliometric Analysis, Financial Market, Stock Market.
JEL classification: G12, G15, G17